Designing pedagogy (4 Short Papers 0104, 0142, 0227, 0273)


09:00 - 10:20 on Wednesday, 8 September 2010 in Room B62

Presenter for 0273 cannot get to the UK [SS 30/8/2010]

104 Do tutors make good learning designers? Large-scale evaluation of e-learning resources produced by tutors. Richard J. Windle, Heather Wharrad, Claire Bradley, Raquel Morales, Dawn Leeder, Tom Boyle
142 eLM – an eLearning mapping tool Peter Duffy
227 Embedding innovative ways of working in learning and teaching: implications for staff and organisations Diane McDonald, Donna Cullen, Lesley Gourlay
273 The effect of textual, pictorial and textual-pictorial glosses on English vocabulary learning Bahman Gorjian, Abdolreza Pazhakh, Katayoun Sharafi, Parviz Askari, Alireza Heidarei - Bahman Gorjian unable to get to Nottingham.
104 Do tutors make good learning designers? Large-scale evaluation of e-learning resources produced by tutors. Richard J. Windle, Heather Wharrad, Claire Bradley, Raquel Morales, Dawn Leeder, Tom Boyle This paper explores the design of learning resources in relation to expressed pedagogical intention and learners’ evaluations. The RLO-CETL has developed a community of practice approach that enables tutors to design learning objects that address the specific pedagogical requirements of their students. Here we present the evaluations of 12 projects deploying approximately 130 learning resources with 2,250 students yearly, across three HE institutions. We have analysed the extent to which the pedagogical imperatives of the tutors were represented in their designs and the students’ evaluation of the resultant resources. Tutors expressed a range of pedagogical drivers for the development and deployment of learning objects. These were categorised into four thematic areas; the development of students’ understanding, adoption of particular learning approaches, support for student-centred learning and the need to address tutor-centric issues, such as large group sizes. The development framework (Boyle et al. 2007) allowed for considerable design flexibility in the completed resources. These were analysed using the LOAM tool (Windle et al. 2007) which consists of a series of scorable pedagogical attributes based on IMS learning design (IMS 2005). Clear differences in the design of resources existed between projects and institutions. This was particularly evident in the use of media, interactivity, assessment, feedback and degree of contextualisation. Parallels between the pedagogical intentions of the tutors and the design of the resources were evident in some, but not all cases. For example, tutors who expressed a desire to deepen understanding tended to design resources with a greater level of contextualisation, interactivity and self direction. Despite the differences in the design of the resources, they were evaluated very positively across all subject areas, with over 90% of students indicating that they had found their resources helpful or very helpful for their learning. Students’ qualitative comments aligned with the pedagogical decisions made by their tutors. This indicates that learning objects are effective across a range of subject areas and are capable of meeting diverse pedagogical needs. Moreover, tutors were able to make effective and differential learning design choices through this format that supported the specific learning requirements of their students.
142 eLM – an eLearning mapping tool Peter Duffy Many staff, whilst broadly acknowledging the benefits of eLearning, struggle with the broad range of possibilities and their application to teaching and learning. This paper describes the development, applied use by academic staff and evaluation of an online visualization tool for pedagogic planning. The eLearning mapping tool (eLM) is an online pedagogic planner to help academic staff quickly cut through the morass of blended learning options to hone in on a practical, effective learning design suitable to their context and concerns. Designed to be useful and used, it is based on the learning triad of technology, activity and learning outcomes (Ehrmann 1998) and heavily influenced in design by Chickering and Erhmann’s (1996) article, ‘Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever.’ The eLM offers both flexible and guided paths through the planning process and guides academic staff through the construction of an eLearning map in order to plan the inclusion of blended learning approaches within a specific subject. This planning process allows staff to create an eLearning map using one of three different foci as the starting point. Staff can initiate the creation of an eLearning map starting from a focus on ’learning outcomes’; a ‘teaching approach or challenge’ for example, scenario based learning or dealing with large classes; or a focus on a particular technology, for example; Discussion Forum, Second Life.etc. Presented will be an overview of this resource and evaluation results of a pilot conducted with academic staff.
227 Embedding innovative ways of working in learning and teaching: implications for staff and organisations Diane McDonald, Donna Cullen, Lesley Gourlay For many educators, emerging technologies such as Web 2.0 are inspiring, offering new opportunities and better ways of supporting development of independent learners. However, for others emerging technologies challenge both their digital competency and their cognitive approach, roles, relationships and core ethos as an educator. For example, effective use of Web 2.0 technologies requires a cognitive shift from using information as a primary resource to embracing social network approaches. Lack of appreciation of this cognitive shift is exacerbating digital literacy divides amongst educators. Further, where not effectively supported and managed, introduction of such technologies into the learning experience can lead to poor educational experiences and disenfranchised staff, impacting institutional effectiveness and reputation. The adoption of emerging technologies and associated innovative practices into the educational experience therefore present challenges to institutions as well as individual academics. Many of the challenges, especially relating to digital literacies of students and staff, eLearning support and change management are well known. However, these issues are still not adequately addressed nor are solutions effectively embedded across the sector. A key factor has been the failure to adopt a sufficiently holistic approach, which takes into account organisational and staff development and their interdependencies (McDonald, Cullen and Comrie 2009). Add to this the need to support educators in adopting cognitively different approaches and it is clear a new, arguably transformative, approach that encompasses professional and organisational development is required. This paper provides an overview of an innovative approach to professional and organisational development adopted by the JISC Embedding Work-with-IT project, which partnered with professional bodies such as SEDA, HEA and the Leadership Foundation. The approach draws on activity theory, to develop a professional and organisational development support framework and toolkit which applies social constructivism and action learning techniques to help institutional managers, staff and educational developers and academic and support staff to understand, assess the implications of, implement, and embed innovative technology-enhanced working practices. The paper will: critically discuss the issues involved in successful embedding of this kind; introduce the Framework and associated theoretical background; stimulate reflection on appropriate organisation development approaches.
273 The effect of textual, pictorial and textual-pictorial glosses on English vocabulary learning Bahman Gorjian, Abdolreza Pazhakh, Katayoun Sharafi, Parviz Askari, Alireza Heidarei When learning a second language for study purposes, it is necessary for a large number of words to be learned in a short period of time at the intermediate and advanced stages of language acquisition. A gloss is defined as an explanation of the meaning of a word (Pak, 1986) or a brief definition or synonym either in L1 or in L2 (Nation, 2001), glosses can be defined as information on important words through definitions or synonyms (Ko, 2005). The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of textual, pictorial and textual-pictorial glosses (i.e., a multimedia explanation of the meaning of the words intact) on English vocabulary learning of 90 female students at pre-university stage. They have been selected from 120 students and have an average age of 17. In an initial homogeneity test, the 90 students scoring 1 standard deviation or more below and above the mean were chosen as the final pool of participants in the study. They were randomly divided into three groups of textual, pictorial and textual-pictorial by systematic random sampling. During 8 sessions of instruction of 40 minutes each, the participants read the texts and consulted the glosses attached to the target words by placing the mouse pointer on the highlighted words. Having read each text, the participants were tested on their vocabulary learning. Finally, they sat a post-test at the end of the treatment period. Statistical analyses were conducted through One-way ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffe tests following the post-test administration. Running One-way ANOVA analyses on the scores indicated that a combination of text and image resulted in significantly better vocabulary learning (p< 0.05). Exposing learners to multimedia glossing in EFL language learning environment has a positive impact on L2 vocabulary acquisition, glosses are useful for enhancing learners' vocabulary learning.